Takanashi, one of the favourites for Sochi 2014, came into the competition top of the overall standings having won the first three World Cup events.
And she picked up from where she left off in the weekend's first competition in Chairkovsky, recording a score of 121.6 points - the best of the opening round.
Her second jump handed her 111.0 points, enough to see her take victory overall with a total of 232.6 points, ahead of Canada's Carina Vogt and home favourite Irina Avvakumova.
It was Vogt's best World Cup finish of the season, moving her up to third in the overall standings, 15 points behind Austria's Daniela Iraschko-Stolz, seventh in Russia, and 174 behind Takanashi's maximum 400 total.
German skier Svenja Wuerth suffered a serious fall in training, sustaining a vertebral injury, although head coach Andrea Bauer revealed there were no signs of paralysis.
Elsewhere Anders Fannemel won qualification for the third stage of the Four Hills Tournament in Innsbruck which will take place on Saturday.
Current Four Hills leader Thomas Diethart placed second with Wolfgang Loitzl of Austria in third.