"With the title in Brazil, a childhood dream was met," said Klose, who retires having netted 71 goals in 137 matches for his country - another record to break Gerd Mueller's.
"I am proud and happy that I was able to shape this great success for German football. I had a unique and wonderful time and many memorable moments in the national team."
Germany national coach Joachim Loew described Klose as a "world star", adding: "he is one of the greatest strikers there have been.
"His footballing qualities; his aerial ability, his goal threat, his understanding and his tireless commitment are second to none, and yet I have barely seen a player who is so much about modesty and team spirit.
"For Miro it was always an honour to play for the national team and he has given everything to Germany. He will be missed as a footballer and a person and I am happy and grateful I was able to work with him."
“I’ve decided to retire in 2015,” Klose told Bild newspaper last month, but he brought it forward a year having ended his career in the 1-0 win over Argentina in the extra-time that ensured Germany of a fourth World Cup triumph.
Having just renewed his contract with Lazio, he is likely to see out his club career in Serie A at the Stadio Olimpico.
Klose turned 36 last month and joined Lazio in July 2011.
Klose follows Germany captain Philipp Lahm into international retirement, with the 30-year-old having done so in the immediate aftermath of the World Cup.
"We gave him (Klose) and Philipp Lahm a worthy farewell," DFB president Wolfgang Niersbach said.
Klose - who was actually born in Poland - made his Germany debut in 2001 and has since played in four World Cups, scoring at all of them.
His goal in the incredible 7-1 semi-final win over Brazil took him past Ronaldo's 15 in the competition to make him the most prolific striker in World Cup history.
No one can doubt Klose's record which is quite unbelievable, but he doesn't retire as one of the very best in history. Ronaldo (the Brazilian one) remains the finest striker of the past 20 years and even though Klose took his World Cup record, he can't obscure Ronaldo's far superior achievements in the club game. As an international specialist, though, Klose is probably unmatched. Bravo.
Miroslav Klose, centre, is now the leading goalscorer in World Cup competition
THE VIEW FROM GERMANY
Daniel Rathjen, Eurosport Germany: The decision of Miroslav Klose was no surprise. He is 36 years old, he has the record he wanted and he is world champion. He has everything. Nevertheless, it is strange to imagine that he will no longer be with the national team. As a rational German it is fundamentally difficult to scream out loud - but for him we make an exception and are singing: THAAAAAANK YOU, MIROOOOOOOOOO!
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