"It can be a good move for the short term, then at the end of the season we'll evaluate what must be done," Juve director general Beppe Marotta told SkySport Italia.
"He is filling a hole. It is a five-month contract with an option for the second season, if things go well.
"Anelka's arrival rules out any other transfers, because in this stage of the transfer window there are no other opportunities."
Anelka, 33, has failed to settle in China since moving to Shanghai Shenhua last season, with reports that the club have failed to pay wages on time.
Juve are looking for firepower after Athletic Bilbao refused to sell Spain striker Fernando Llorente ahead of his free transfer move in the summer.
With Nicklas Bendtner failing to impress since joining on loan from Arsenal in the summer, Juve only had Alessandro Matri and Fabio Quagliarella as out-and-out strikers.
The former France forward has played for Chelsea, Bolton, Manchester City, Liverpool, Real Madrid, Fenerbahce, Paris Saint-Germain and Arsenal in a journeyman career.
Juventus, the defending Italian champions, are top of Serie A.