Wiggins, whose victory in the men's time trial at the London 2012 Games gave him a record-equalling seventh Olympic medal, beat 11 other contenders to the prestigious title.
He became the first Briton to win the Tour, following that triumph with gold at London 2012, his fourth Olympic title, during what was a memorable summer for the 32-year-old cyclist.
The runners-up award went to Olympic heptathlon champion Jessica Ennis.
Third place went to US Open tennis champion and Olympic men's singles gold medallist Andy Murray.
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