The Atletico boss was sent to the stands early on in the Super Copa second leg at the Vicente Calderon, after manhandling the fourth official, sarcastically applauding the referee, and attempting to manage his team from the stands.
He was banned for four matches for touching the official, two for protesting, one for applauding the decision and one for giving instructions after his dismissal.
The Argentine's punishment includes a combined fine of 4,805 euros (£3,800), while Atletico have also been fined 2,800 euros (£2,230).
Simeone has 10 days to appeal the sanctions, which apply to any RFEF competition.
Mario Mandzukic's early goal helped Liga champions Atletico win the match 1-0, winning the two-legged tie 2-1 on aggregate.
Simeone will be sitting out Monday night's Liga opener against Rayo Vallecano due to a ban carried over from last season.
He was also dismissed during the Champions League final defeat to Real Madrid.
Assistant boss German Burgos will sit in the dugout in Simeone's absence.
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