Whitlock, who won team and pommel horse bronze at the London 2012 Olympics, qualified for the all-around final at the European Artistic Gymnastics Individual Championships in first place.
The 20-year-old claimed the English and British titles in the build up to the Europeans but Russian home hope David Belyavskiy was not to be denied in the final as he scored 89.799 for gold.
Whitlock beat off competition from Ukraine duo Oleg Stepko and Oleg Verniaiev to claim silver with his consistency and high scores on the pommel, floor and high bar pulling him through to 89.106.
Verniaiev fell from the pommel and had to make do with bronze with 88.398 while Whitlock's British Olympic bronze medal-winning teammate Daniel Purvis placed fifth with 86.732.
While Purvis' European Championships are over, Whitlock still has the floor and pommel finals to come in Moscow but he won't predict more success or failure either way.
"I'm really happy. The aim is always to do six clean routines but to do it in the final is different and to have the silver medal is amazing," said Whitlock, who won the first European medal of his career last year with gold in the team competition.
"I was very focused throughout and to get the all-around medal having won the English and British Championships is fantastic.
"The pressure if off me now going in to the floor and pommel final over the weekend so I can go out and enjoy it and who knows what could happen. I'm just so happy to have this medal around my neck."