Coach Luiz Felipe Scolari's selections were almost as notable for who was missing as for who was chosen.
"Fernandinho is playing well and this is an opportunity for him," Scolari told reporters.
Scolari plans to take 18 or 19 players for the March 5 encounter in Johannesburg because of the travel involved and the short time they will spend in the country.
"We are going to arrive at midnight on the Monday, we will train Tuesday and play Wednesday so what's the point of taking 22 players," said the coach.
Former Chelsea and Portugal boss Scolari will announce the additional Brazil-based players, including a goalkeeper and two strikers, by Feb. 24.
He warned reporters not to draw too many conclusions from his selections because he was taking a streamlined squad and also due to the fact there is still a chance for players to impress him ahead of the World Cup.
"I am always observing, there might still be another surprise in the final squad," said Scolari. "We can never be sure the ones we are going to choose will be in the optimum condition when it comes time to choose our final squad."
Brazil, hosting the World Cup for the first time since 1950, kick off the competition against Croatia on June 12. Mexico and Cameroon are the other two teams in Group A.
Goalkeeper: Julio Cesar (Queens Park Rangers)
Forwards: Hulk (Zenit St Petersburg), Bernard (Shakhtar Donetsk), Neymar (Barcelona)