LV= County Championship Division One leaders Yorkshire at least managed three batting points as they turned their overnight score of 292 for five into 433 for nine declared.
Captain Andrew Gale's innings was eventually ended by Gary Keedy for 148, while Liam Plunkett had some fun with an aggressive 51. Surrey were 53 for one at stumps, nightwatchman Tim Linley protecting Pietersen and Vikram Solanki at the close.
England opener Nick Compton missed out on the chance to press his Ashes claims as Tony Palladino celebrated his return from injury with a four-wicket haul for Derbyshire on a rain-affected second day against Somerset at Derby.
Compton made only 15 before he fell to Palladino, who took four for 75.
It was another struggle for Somerset's batsmen on a day when 45 overs were lost, with only skipper Marcus Trescothick reaching 50 as Derbyshire reduced them to 180 for six at the close - still 86 behind.
Sussex's Chris Nash survived the miserable conditions and a disputed decision at Trent Bridge to reach 45 not out on a rain-interrupted opening day against Nottinghamshire.
The 30-year old right-hander looked in good touch, with five boundaries in his 63-ball stay, as Sussex reached 91 for one before the final thunderstorm of the day brought a premature close.