All-rounder Shane Watson was trapped leg before wicket by James Anderson for 43 to bring up the break in a big blow to the hosts, who are looking to wrap up a 5-0 series sweep.
Steve Smith will resume on eight not out after England also removed David Warner (16), Chris Rogers (11) and Australia captain Michael Clarke (10) in the opening session.
England captain Alastair Cook had won the toss for the first time in the series and chose to send his new-look team out to bowl on a green-tinged wicket under overcast skies.
Cook got some reward for his gamble in the sixth over when Stuart Broad removed Warner with a peach of a delivery that smashed into the top of the batsman's off stump.
There was no perceptible swing, though, and as the cloud over the newly-developed ground cleared, it looked like Australia just had to weather the new ball before opening up to pour on the runs.
All-rounder Ben Stokes pegged them back in the 16th over, however, when opener Rogers misjudged the length of a delivery and chopped the ball onto his own stumps to leave his side two down with 51 runs on the board.
England looked sharper in the field and opening batsmen Michael Carberry, tipped for the axe by many punters, had a chance to run out Clarke on two but his throw just missed the stumps.
When it looked like Australia might make it through to lunch without further loss, though, Stokes struck again by finding a good length and inducing Clarke into a thick edge which Ian Bell claimed in the slips.
Better was to follow and, with the break looming, Anderson hit Watson on the front pad with successive deliveries and the umpire raised his finger after the second to make the all-rounder the first Australian batsmen to be out lbw in the series.
After four humiliating defeats, England rang the changes in their team by dropping top order batsman Joe Root, spinner Monty Panesar and seamer Tim Bresnan.
In their place, first caps were awarded to batsman Gary Ballance, young leg-spinner Scott Borthwick and tall Irish paceman Boyd Rankin.
While England have now used 18 players on the tour, Australia were unchanged for the fifth successive Test in the series.