The hosts announced their squad on New Year's Eve for the first three of five ODIs, beginning in Melbourne on January 12.
Clarke, who sat out Australia's last ODI series in India because of his sore back, will return to take over the captaincy from George Bailey.
The latter, who made his Test debut in a so far unchanged Australia team which is on the brink of an Ashes whitewash of the tourists with one match remaining, will be Clarke's ODI vice-captain.
Also included in the squad are Ashes sensation Mitchell Johnson, whose unstoppable left-arm pace has claimed 31 wickets in the series to date, in-form wicketkeeper-batsman Brad Haddin, David Warner and Shane Watson.
Combative opener Warner was dropped for the limited-overs series in England and India, but has since been back to his best in all formats.
Australian national selector John Inverarity said: "David Warner has won back his place in the Australia ODI squad with his outstanding recent form, not least in the domestic Ryobi One-Day Cup competition that was held in September and October in Sydney.
"Michael Clarke, Shaun Marsh and James Pattinson have been included after being unavailable through injury for the series against India in October."
Aaron Finch, who smashed a record-breaking and match-winning Twenty20 century against England at the Ageas Bowl at the end of last summer, is also included.
Inverarity added: "Aaron Finch and Shaun Marsh are exciting prospects at the top of the order, with the 2015 ICC Cricket World Cup only 14 months away.
"Michael Clarke and (coach) Darren Lehmann will be looking for consistent performances from these players and the other batsmen who have the potential to impose themselves strongly on matches."
Pace bowler Pattinson's inclusion represents an opportunity to demonstrate his readiness to return in the Test format too, after injury curtailed his 2013 Ashes summer.
"James Pattinson has worked hard to get back to full fitness and will be looking to regain his best form," said Inverarity.
"His performances will provide a guide to the NSP when it selects the team for the Test tour to South Africa in February and March."
Australia's 14-man squad for the first three ODI matches: M Clarke (Captain), G Bailey, N Coulter-Nile, X Doherty, J Faulkner, A Finch, B Haddin, M Johnson, S Marsh, G Maxwell, C McKay, J Pattinson, D Warner, S Watson.