The rising delivery from paceman Varun Aaron went straight through the grille of Broad's helmet and hit him on the bridge of the nose, immediately drawing blood.
Broad called for attention straight away but was able to stand and receive treatment before being led off the field.
The incident occurred in the first over of the afternoon session of the third day of the match.
England had resumed on 325 for eight - a lead of 173 - and Broad had immediately set about accelerating progress by hooking Aaron for successive sixes.
It appeared that India had planned to attack England's batsmen with short balls in an attempt to end the innings and, despite conceding the two maximums, Aaron persisted with the tactic. He struck Broad with his next delivery.
Joe Root and Moeen Ali have also been troubled by the same bowler during the match.
Broad was led back to the dressing room looking groggy and it was uncertain whether he would be fit to take the new ball for India's second innings.
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