Winger Robben, who only recently returned after a four-week absence due to a back injury, will miss Saturday's Bavarian derby against Nuremberg as well as the clash at Valencia in the Champions League next week.
"He will not be at our disposal tomorrow and against Valencia," coach Jupp Heynckes told reporters. He said the club would have to see how Robben recovered after that.
The Dutch international was injured in the 0-0 friendly draw against Germany in Amsterdam on Wednesday.
It is not the first time Robben has come back with an injury from international duty. He missed the first half of the 2010/11 season after being injured during the 2010 World Cup, with Bayern Munich arguing with the Dutch federation for months over compensation.
Robben will most likely be joined on the sidelines by Luiz Gustavo, who has been nursing minor muscle problems for the past two weeks.
"Luiz is not feeling well and will most likely not be with us," Heynckes said.
The coach, however, can again count on defender Holger Badstuber, who will be included in the squad after a three-week layoff due to a torn muscle.
Forward Mario Gomez could also slip into the squad after recovering from ankle surgery in August.
"It is my job to bring him back carefully," said Heynckes, adding a final decision on the striker would be taken later on Friday.
Bayern are top of the Bundesliga with a seven-point lead over second-placed Schalke 04 after winning 10 of 11 league games.