The 36-year-old produced a season's best time of 10.12 seconds to claim gold ahead of Harry Aikines-Aryeetey and Chijindu Ujah.
"That was tough. I wasn't sure if I was going to get that one I have to be honest," Chambers said.
"But experience again paid off and it's something I've got in abundance and I've still got a little bit of ability left in my body so I use it to its capacity.
"I knew the pressure was on with the youngsters here. CJ has already run 9.96 this year so I knew with him being next to me there was a lot of pressure on me.
"I just thought 'just get out, if I get out the pressure is on them and all I have to do is run in a straight line' and thankfully that's what I did.
"It did cross my mind [that if I hadn't done it this might have been my last championships]. Doubts cross your mind but you need to learn to remove them and when that gun went bang everything just disappeared and I just ran.
"Effectively you could say I was running for my career. I was running for everything, the opportunity to compete. I'm in the 4x100 at the Commonwealths and hopefully I've secured my place for the individual at the European Championships and that's something I want to get on the podium for before my career is over."
Jodie Williams was unable to claim a sprint double following her 200m gold on Saturday, finishing third in the women's 100m behind Asha Philip and Ashleigh Nelson.
Martyn Rooney held off the challenge of Conrad Williams in the 400m to take his fifth British Championship title while in the 110m hurdles, William Sharman displayed his dominance to win by 0.43 seconds.
In the women's 5,000 metres, Emelia Gorecka pipped Jo Pavey in a sprint finish to take the title while Lynsey Sharp won the 800m in a time of 2:01.40.
And Eilidh Child took the 400m hurdles title ahead of Meghan Beesley while Tom Bosworth set a new British record in the men's 5,000m walk.
While there was plenty of action in the field, with triple jumper Julian Reid, javelin thrower Goldie Sayers and hammer thrower Sophie Hitchon just three to take titles on Sunday.
And multi-eventer Katarina Johnson-Thompson set a new life time best in the long jump, setting a marker of 6.81m - although later warned she still felt short of top form.
"I am quite pleased with the weekend," she said.
"My body feels tired this weekend. I don't feel like I am in form to do my best but I am still getting PBs even thought I feel tired so that is a good sign and hopefully I can go out in Glasgow and do the country proud.
"I don't feel too much pressure and I think pressure is just what happens. I don't feel pressure even though people now expect me to do well.
"I put pressure on myself in that I want to win and achieve my dreams and although more people want me to do it doesn't affect me."
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- Athletics, Track & Field