The Arsenal midfielder has not featured for his country since making his fifth appearance against Switzerland in June 2011.
He has only just returned after 16 months out through injury and Arsene Wenger had cautioned against him being propelled straight back into the international arena. However, Roy Hodgson has opted to select Wilshere anyway.
It is the stand-out pick in a squad that includes Everton's Leon Osman for the first time, and will be skippered by Steven Gerrard, who will win his 100th cap.
Also included are Liverpool duo Jonjo Shelvey and Raheem Sterling.
Jermain Defoe, Andy Carroll and Michael Carrick have not been included but they remain part of Hodgson's plans with the former West Brom boss simply choosing to look at other options.
Ashley Young returns from injury at the expense of Sunderland's out-of-form winger Adam Johnson while Arsenal full-back Carl Jenkinson is expected to be added belatedly once he receives FIFA clearance.
The former Charlton defender will be eligible once the complex process is resolved after committing his future to England and training with the squad prior to the World Cup qualifier against Poland.
The squad will meet up on Sunday and train in Manchester ahead of travelling to Stockholm for the game, which is the official opening of the new Friends Arena in the Swedish capital.
England squad to face Sweden
Goalkeepers: Fraser Forster (Celtic), Joe Hart (Manchester City), John Ruddy (Norwich City)
Defenders: Leighton Baines (Everton), Ryan Bertrand (Chelsea), Gary Cahill (Chelsea), Steven Caulker (Tottenham), Phil Jagielka (Everton), Glen Johnson (Liverpool), Ryan Shawcross (Stoke City), Kyle Walker (Tottenham)
Midfielders: Tom Cleverley (Manchester United), Steven Gerrard (Liverpool), Aaron Lennon (Tottenham), Leon Osman (Everton), Jonjo Shelvey (Liverpool), Raheem Sterling (Liverpool), Theo Walcott (Arsenal), Jack Wilshere (Arsenal), Ashley Young (Manchester United).
Forwards: Wayne Rooney (Manchester United), Daniel Sturridge (Chelsea), Daniel Welbeck (Manchester United)