Sturridge missed the 4-0 win over Moldova on Friday night and has not recovered in time to depart with Roy Hodgson's squad on Sunday.
With Danny Welbeck suspended and Wayne Rooney and Andy Carroll already ruled out due to injury, Southampton striker Rickie Lambert is set to lead the line after scoring twice in his first two matches for the national side that included the winner against Scotland in a 3-2 friendly victory last month.
A statement on the FA's official website said: "The FA can confirm that Daniel Sturridge will not return to the England squad ahead of the World Cup qualifier with Ukraine on Tuesday.
"Club England medical staff have been in constant contact with their counterparts at Liverpool Football Club since he returned there on Thursday, his injury has not progressed as had been hoped and it is now clear that Sturridge will not be fit for the match in Kiev on Tuesday evening.
"No additions will be made to Roy Hodgson’s squad of 23 players who travel to Ukraine on Sunday evening."
England are top of Group H on goal difference from Montenegro, and know nine points from their final three matches in Ukraine and at home to Montenegro and Poland will seal their progress to next summer's finals in Brazil.