Both players made their last national team appearances in a friendly against Bosnia last February.
Scolari, who led Brazil to their 2002 World Cup title and returned for a second stint in November, also left out Kaka and gave another chance to striker Luis Fabiano for the friendly against England next month.
Kaka impressed late last year in his first Brazil appearances for more than two years.
Lazio midfielder Hernanes, who had fallen out of favour with Scolari's predecessor Mano Menezes, was included for the match at Wembley on February 6 along with Bayern Munich defender Dante.
Scolari has less than 18 months to build a team capable of winning a sixth world title for Brazil on home soil.
Former World Player of the Year Ronaldinho, 32, has performed in fits and starts over the past few years and failed to make the squad for the 2010 World Cup.
However, he rediscovered his form last season after joining Atletico Mineiro
"I want what everyone else wants which is that they play the football they are capable of playing," Scolari told a news conference, referring to Ronaldinho and striker Neymar.
"Few can play the game better than them.
"I also want good behaviour. I want them to be responsible, regardless of their age."
Goalkeepers: Julio Cesar (Queens Park Rangers), Diego Alves (Valencia)
Defenders: Daniel Alves (Barcelona), Adriano (Barcelona), David Luiz (Chelsea), Dante (Bayern Munich), Leandro Castan (AS Roma), Miranda (Atletico Madrid), Filipe Luis (Atletico Madrid)
Midfielders: Ramires (Chelsea), Arouca (Santos), Paulinho (Corinthians), Hernanes (Lazio), Oscar (Chelsea), Ronaldinho (Atletico Mineiro)
Forwards: Hulk (Zenit St Petersburg), Neymar (Santos), Lucas (Paris St Germain), Fred (Fluminense), Luis Fabiano (Sao Paulo)