The 20-year-old recorded a long jump PB of 6.56m before setting another personal milestone at the Luzhniki Stadium with a throw of 40.86m in the javelin.
Johnson-Thompson’s long jump effort was second only to Claudia Rath in Group A, with the German recording 6.67m for a PB of her own.
Rath is sixth in the overall standings, one place behind Johnson-Thompson approaching the final event - the 800m which takes place at 5.26pm BST on Tuesday evening.
If the Brit can finish less than 0.41 seconds behind Rath and more than 2.92 seconds ahead of Netherlands’ Dafne Schippers, who is currently third, then she will claim bronze.
Meanwhile, Robbie Grabarz soared into the high jump final as the joint number one qualifier.
The Olympic bronze medallist has endured a frustrating season to date, his best heading to Moscow sitting at 2.31m, six centimetres off his personal best.
But Grabarz showed no signs of struggle on the world stage as he cleared his all of his four heights at the first time of asking, including 2.29m, to ease into the championships.
And the 25-year-old admits his safe passage was all down to remaining calm this year when things haven't been going his way.
"It was really nice to come out and qualify strongly," he said. "Early starts aren't really a problem to me so that probably played into my advantage, I saw a couple of the other guys really struggle.
"It's been a rubbish season really but I've had to be patient and we'll see what happens on Thursday."