The Scot, who finished second behind European champion Viatcheslav Sinkevich in the 200m discipline on Saturday, again fell agonisingly short of gold – this time Australia's Kenneth To pipped him to the wall.
London 2012 silver medallist Jamieson clocked 58.83secs, 0.41 adrift of To, while home favourite Sinkevich rounded off the top three in 58.89.
Sophie Allen was also celebrating a silver for the second day in succession after her second-place finish in the 200m butterfly.
Allen was the busiest British swimmer in Moscow, qualifying for three finals on Sunday evening, and followed up her silver in the 200m medley from Saturday.
She clocked 2:07.92mins in finishing behind Hungary's Katinka Hosszu in the butterfly discipline, while Mireia Belmonte of Spain came third.
Allen was also in action in the 50m breaststroke and 100m medley and finished fourth and fifth respectively in events both won by Lithuania's Ruta Meilutyte.
Elsewhere, Ben Proud was the only other Brit in action and he finished eighth in the 50m freestyle showpiece – clocking 21.96.