Storey, whose previous golds came in the C5 pursuit and 500m time trial in the Velodrome, beat her nearest rival Anna Harkowska of Poland by an astonishing one minute 34 seconds over the 16km course.
The victory for the cyclist - who was within a whisker of making it onto the main Olympic team for the team pursuit - gave her a 10th Paralympic gold, bringing the 34-year-old to within one of record-holders Tanni Grey-Thompson and Dave Roberts.
Storey will not have to wait long to equal that record: she rides in the road race on Thursday, and will once again be hot favourite to win.
“I’ve spent so much time on the road this year and only went onto the track three weeks ago,” she said.
“Having watched the success of the Olympic team on the road, Bradley winning the time trial and Chris Froome getting the bronze medal, I just wanted to make sure I added my name to that list of success.
“With the track I've done so much but I love riding on the road and when the time trial's done well there's no greater feeling."
Neither Dame Tanni nor Roberts can match Storey's achievement in spreading her wins over two different sports: her first five Paralympic titles game in the swimming pools of Barcelona 1992 and Atlanta 1996, while she won two cycling golds in Beijing.
There was more British success at Brands Hatch as Wales's Mark Colbourne won silver in the men's C1 time trial, his third medal of the Games. He finished 12.94 seconds behind German's Michael Teuber.
“I’m proud of what I’ve done; I'm catching Teuber month by month,” he said.
“I tried to pace it as best I could. I was probably 30 seconds quicker on the first lap than I wanted.”
Jon-Allan Butterworth, winner of three silver medals on the track, finished 13th in the C5 event, wearing heavy bandaging on his right side after a training crash on the day before the event, hurting his ankle, knee, hip, back, shoulder, arm and elbow.
He finished the 24km course in 36'56.39, a margin of 4’43 behind winner Yegor Dementyev of Ukraine.
“I definitely wouldn't have won but [the crash] definitely had an impact on my performance," he said.
"Going down one of the descents I was on the racing line, I got taken out by a tandem.
"I went down pretty heavily, at about 50kph something like that. I didn't know if I was going to ride today. It's been quite sore resting on my wounds on the TT bike.”