Senna, who raced for Williams, Renault and HRT in F1, will compete in the World Endurance Championship in one of two GTE Pro class Aston Martin Vantage GTEs.
"I want to move forward and get back to winning races," Senna told Autosport. "The opportunities weren't there to do that in Formula 1."
He will share the car with Frederic Makowiecki in the eight races, with Rob Bell joining them as the third driver for Le Mans and the Spa 6 Hours.
The British team's principal John Gaw said: "Our aim is to win at Le Mans and in the WEC, and we are particularly pleased to welcome such a professional driver line-up to Aston Martin Racing in this centenary year."
Senna raced Le Mans with ORECA in 2009.