Whitlock, the 2013 English and British all-around champion, scored 89.365 from all his apparatus for first overall while an effort of 15.466 afforded him the same privilege on the floor.
The 20-year-old also qualified in second on the pommel horse with Krisztian Berki, who beat both him and Louis Smith at the London 2012 Olympics last summer, leading the way in that discipline.
Britain's male gymnastics team will have representation in eight finals with Daniel Purvis joining Whitlock in the all-around medal showdown after ranking eighth overall with a score of 84.966.
Sam Oldham advanced to both the floor and high bars finals, being joined by Ashley Watson in the latter, while Daniel Keatings will compete alongside Whitlock in the pommel horse medal showdown in Russia.
The men's all-around finals take place on Friday before the apparatus finals on Saturday and Sunday with the British women's team to compete next in qualification on Thursday.
And Whitlock said: "It was an amazing competition for me, my first major championships all-around and I couldn't be happier.
"Floor and pommel were great, my target was to do six clean routines and that's what I did, if I can do it again on Friday I'll be really, really happy."