The new machine was unveiled in the pitlane at Jerez, shortly before the start of the first day of 2014 pre-season testing at the Spanish track.
Like several rival teams, including sister outfit Toro Rosso, Adrian Newey's design team has gone for a nose with a narrow protruding section at the front.
The Milton Keynes-based squad secured its fourth straight drivers' and constructors' titles last year, with Sebastian Vettel ending another triumphant season by racking up a record-equalling nine consecutive grand prix wins.
The German will once again spearhead the team's 2014 campaign, but he will have a new partner in the form of 24-year-old Daniel Ricciardo.
The Australian, who has spent the past two seasons with sister team Toro Rosso, won the race to replace the sportscar-bound Mark Webber in 2014.
The RB10, the 10th car to be created by Red Bull since it took over Jaguar's entry ahead of the 2005 season, will once again be powered by Renault.
The French engine manufacturer pledged a conservative approach to the 2014 season, saying "some compromises" had to be accepted to guarantee reliability.