The McLaren convert went straight on at the Dry Sack hairpin at the end of the Spanish track's backstraight due to a problem with the right rear brakes.
Hamilton made contact with the tyre wall, but was unhurt.
After further investigations at Mercedes, the team decided it could not run again on Wednesday.
The team confirmed to AUTOSPORT that repairs required to areas including the hydraulics would preclude any further outings on day two.
Hamilton had completed 15 laps before the crash and was second fastest at the time.
Wednesday's issue follows a difficult first day with the Mercedes W04, as an electrical glitch stopped Nico Rosberg 14 laps into day one of testing.
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