Van Persie took his tally to 41 goals from 80 appearances, passing Patrick Kluivert's record on a night of clinical efficiency from the Dutch, who were already qualified for next year's finals in Brazil and racked up their eighth win of the campaign.
Van Persie opened the scoring with a 15th minute header and equalled the record soon after as the Dutch dominated and went into half-time 4-0 ahead.
Kevin Strootman and Jeremain Lens profited from defensive errors to also score before the break with Van Persie breaking the record with his third in the 52nd minute, before being taken off to an standing ovation from the Amsterdam Arena fans.
There were also poignant sideline celebrations with Kluivert, now an assistant to coach Louis van Gaal.
A bizarre own goal from Szilard Devecseri in the 64th minute added to the Dutch tally while late efforts from Rafael van der Vaart and Arjen Robben rounded off the high tempo performance from the Dutch, who had been warned by Van Gaal they would be playing for places in Brazil.
Hungary's goal came from a penalty converted by Balazs Dzsudzsak after a handball from Jeffrey Bruma just after the break.
Netherlands have 25 points from their nine games, with their final match away to Turkey on Tuesday. Turkey and Romania, who both have 16 points with one match remaining, are fighting it out for a playoff spot.