Verbeek, 51, last coached AZ Alkmaar from 2010-13, winning the Dutch Cup and steering them to a Europa League spot three times.
He replaces Michael Wiesinger who was sacked on October 8 after a bad start to the season.
"If you look at the Dutch league then it is clear that Gertjan has been very successful," Nuremberg sports director Martin Bader told reporters.
"Gertjan Verbeek is an interesting coach for Nuremberg both in the short term and the medium term."
Nuremberg, without a win so far this season, are in the relegation play-off with six points from nine matches.