The trio are to assist the Under-21 and Under-18 squads at the Kirkby Academy.
"It's great to have Robbie, Steve and Rob on board," Rodgers told the Liverpool Echo.
"I wanted to get more former players involved and over the off-season I spoke to a number of them about a possible role here.
"For me it's so important to have players like that around. These are players who the young guys look up to.
"The three of them have come in recently and I know they have thoroughly enjoyed having that involvement of working with the kids.
"We're starting with the older academy players as they are ones they can really affect at this moment.
"It's both coaching and mentoring."
Rodgers has spoken previously about wanting to utilise the experience of the recently-retired Jamie Carragher, who has opted for a career in television.
The Northern Irishman has immersed himself in the club's history since arriving in the summer of 2012 and will continue to do so.
All three players spent the bulk of the 1990s playing for Liverpool and earned England caps while at the club.
Fowler, an Everton supporter as a boy, scored 183 goals in the 369 games for Liverpool over two spells at the club, putting him fifth on the club's all-time list behind only Ian Rush, Roger Hunt, Gordon Hodgson and Billy Liddell.
McManaman was another local boy who actually supported Everton but became a Liverpool legend playing 364 games and scoring 66 goals.
Rob Jones, whose grandfather also played for Liverpool from 1938-1954, played 243 games for the club but never managed to find the back of the net from right-back.