Diaby, who scored the only goal in Friday's victory in Finland, has an unspecified muscle problem and is a doubtful starter for the game at the Stade de France.
"He took a bad knock (against Finland) and won't train today," coach Didier Deschamps told a news conference before adding that defender Gael Clichy was also injured.
"They both will struggle to make it."
Diaby's career has been plagued by injuries. He played only four games for Arsenal last season and missed Euro 2012.
Deschamps said Arsenal's new striker Olivier Giroud, who missed the Finland game, was fit again but did not confirm he would play.