Deschamps, captain of the team that won the 1998 World Cup, took over from Laurent Blanc after France lost to eventual champions Spain in the Euro 2012 quarter-finals.
None of the four France players - Samir Nasri, Jeremy Menez, Hatem Ben Arfa and Yann M'vila - accused of misbehaviour at Euro 2012 were included in Deschamps' squad for the friendly in Le Havre.
But Karim Benzema and Bayern Munich winger Franck Ribery, who will have to face a judge to answer claims that they paid for sex with a minor, played and Benzema had an encouraging game before being substituted after an hour.
France began fluently with Benzema playing with Olivier Giroud up front.
Mapou Yanga-Mbiwa, making his debut in central defence, had a fine effort following a corner saved by Fernando Muslera, and the Uruguay goalkeeper was soon in action again to turn away a Benzema header.
Uruguay, without Edinson Cavani and Luis Suarez, struggled to get out of their half for long periods with France enjoying the lion's share of possession, but the defence of the Copa America champions kept its shape.
France were more incisive after half-time and Muslera kept out a shot from Mathieu Valbuena before Benzema crashed a volley against Uruguay's left-hand post with the keeper beaten.
A rare Uruguay attack sparked by Diego Forlan forced Hugo Lloris, France's captain, to save from Sebastian Abreu with his feet before Muslera denied Bafetimbi Gomis with a flying save after the French substitute shot from outside the area.