Wiggins, the first Briton to triumph in cycling's most famous tour, topped the poll of journalists ahead of double Olympic middle-distance gold medal winner Mo Farah and .US Open tennis champion Andy Murray.
London Games heptathlon winner Jessica Ennis captured the sportswoman award for the third time in four years, having polled two-thirds of the votes cast.
Olympic rowing gold medallist Katherine Grainger was runner-up ahead of double Games cycling champion Laura Trott.
Ennis also won the Pat Besford Trophy for the outstanding performance of the year.
Europe's Ryder Cup golfers were the runaway winners of the team of the year title after retaining the trophy in the United States in September.