After Martin Johnsrud Sundby's victory at the Ruka Triple last weekend, Golberg dominated the 15km classic to win by 14.2seconds ahead of Alexey Poltoranin of Kazakhstan.
Golberg posted a winning time of 35:00minutes dead while there was another Norwegian in the form of Didrik Toenseth in third place, 15.5 behind in total.
And it marks Golberg's best return at a World Cup race, having finished second in a team sprint in Liberec last season and third in the individual spring at the same leg.
Elsewhere Justyna Kowalczyk made up for last weekend's miss at the Ruka Triple by winning the 10km classic ahead of two of those who denied her in Finland.
Kowalczyk fell out of contention in the 10km freestyle at the Ruka Triple as Marit Bjoergen powered to victory before Charlotte Kalla and Norwegian teammate Therese Johaug.
However she wasn't to be denied in the classic as she clocked a winning time of 24:59.4 ahead of Kalla and then Bjoergen with Kowalczyk delighted with the result.
She said: "I have been waiting a long time for a win in the 10km classic. The track was very fast and I skied perfect. It was a great feeling."