Warner, dropped on 18, had 58 not out in a lunch total of 126 for two - a positive return on captain Michael Clarke's decision to bat first having won the toss.
Ravichandran Ashwin was the pick of an occasionally wayward bowling attack, taking two for 30 in 11 testing overs.
India began the day by handing Harbhajan Singh his 100th Test appearance as well giving seamer Bhuvneshwar Kumar his debut. Australia got off to a great start with Warner and Ed Cowan at the crease, scoring exactly 50 in the first 10 overs.
That tally included four boundaries apiece as Kumar and Ishant Sharma both gave away too many loose deliveries.
Warner was dropped in the ninth over, Ashwin's first, when he edged to Virender Sehwag at slip only to see a straightforward chance shelled.
Warner was handed another life when Mahendra Singh Dhoni failed to take a tough stumping chance off Ashwin - a failing he rectifed when he whipped the bails off to remove Cowan for 29. Cowan had hit Harbhajan for the first six of the day moments earlier but was unable to repeat the dose against Ashwin and paid with his wicket.
The second wicket was soon to arrive, Phil Hughes lasting 15 uncomfortable balls for six before edging Ashwin onto his stumps with an ungainly cut.
Harbhajan and Ashwin regained some control over a scoring rate that had threatened to get out of control, but Shane Watson was showing better technique than his team-mates in his new position of number four.
Watson (28no) brought up the Australia hundred in the 28th over, with Warner moving to 50 soon after with a well-run two.