The 28-year-old, who scored 105 not out to help England beat Essex in an Ashes warm-up match this week, is now tied to Yorkshire until December 2016.
Pontefract-born Bresnan made his first-class debut for Yorkshire against Northamptonshire in 2003 and has represented England in 18 Tests, 76 one-day internationals and 25 T20 internationals.
Yorkshire director of cricket Martyn Moxon said: "It is great news that Tim has committed his long-term future to the club.
"Tim has firmly established himself as an England regular but his commitment to Yorkshire is vital in our on-going efforts of developing a strong squad based around players produced through the club development system."
Bresnan becomes the latest Yorkshire player to commit his future to the club, with England team-mate Jonny Bairstow, Gary Ballance, Steven Patterson, Moin Ashraf and Azeem Rafiq all penning new deals this summer.