Norway had already won seven of the 10 golds available at the World Championships but Boe made it eight from a possible 11 with victory in the men's 15km mass start for a best-ever title tally by a country at the competition.
Boe was perfect with the rifle to cross the line in 36:15.8 minutes, his first individual podium finish since December 2011.
Anton Shipulin picked up a silver, the second of his and Russia's assault in Nove Mesto, the country's worst performance at a World Championships since 1995.
Emil Hegle Svendsen headed into the race bidding to become the first athlete to win five gold medals in one World Championships but was unable to halt compatriot Boe.
Instead he had to settle for bronze, while Martin Fourcade of France also missed out on writing his name into the history books as he could only finish tenth, meaning he failed to become the first man to win a medal ion all six events.
There was also disappointment for Germany who finished the World Championships without a gold medal to their name for the first time.