Coming into Monday's game in Chicago, Charlotte (8-23) last picked up a win on November 24 against Washington. Kemba Walker scored 18 points and Gerald Henderson added 16 for the Bobcats, who set a team record of 23 consecutive defeats last season.
The all-time record is 26 straight losses by Cleveland in the 2010-2011 campaign.
Charlotte made the breakthrough in the final quarter, where they broke free from a 65-65 tie with a 10-0 run that made the difference.
"We just wanted to fight more than anything," Henderson told reporters. "We were a desperate team."