In front of 5,000 fans, Barcelona played some impressive football, keeping the ball for large periods of the game, but were kept out by some resolute defending from the home side.
Anderlecht were happy for the Catalans to have possession, and attacked quickly on the counter-attack.
Barcelona centre-back Robert Costa was shown a red card on 75 minutes for a dangerous tackle but the Belgians were unable to take advantage of the extra man to take the three points.
The draw means Barcelona extend their lead at the top of Group 1 to five points over Tottenham Hotspur, who have played two games less than the Catalans.
Anderlecht remain rooted to the bottom of Group 1 without a win in the competition.