Bolt, with a wave and a quick salute to an appreciative Luzhniki stadium crowd pre-race - but no smiles or elaborate gestures - eased down the straight in 10.07 seconds, safely earning his passage to the semi-finals on Sunday. The final is later on Sunday evening.
Running in the last of seven first-round heats, Bolt kept his composure after Kemar Hyman of the Cayman Islands, running in lane four - directly to Bolt's right - false-started and was disqualified.
Olympic champion and world record holder Bolt infamously suffered the same fate two years ago in Daegu, South Korea, and was forced to walk away as compatriot Yohan Blake took his world title.
Aikines-Aryeetey and Chambers both automatically advanced into the semi-finals, both finishing third in their heats.
However, Dasaolu, who became Britain's second-fastest sprinter of all time last month - clocking 9.91 seconds - scraped through by the skin of his teeth.
The 25-year-old eased up during the final few metres of his heat and finished fourth, leading to an agonising wait until he was confirmed as a fastest loser by just 0.01s.
"I've learnt a lesson," the Londoner, 25, told the BBC. "I don't think I got off to a great start. I'll just use the round and try to build on this tomorrow.
"I haven't been able to do much training in the run-up to this and I knew I'd be a bit rusty but hopefully I can step my game up tomorrow."
Chambers said his own heat had been far from comfortable.
"It was tough," said Chambers, 35.
"The first round is always nerve-wracking because you want to get through safely and it was a tough heat with the likes of [Justin] Gatlin and [Keston] Bledman - sub 10-second runners.
"Medals are up for grabs here but you've got to take each round one step at a time, and I know for me I've got to rely on my experience, most definitely."