Fraser-Pryce, twice Olympic 100 metres champion, ran a brilliant bend and was always in command, coming home in 22.17 seconds to become the first woman since Katrin Krabbe in 1991 to win the world sprint double. American Kelly White did win both races in 2003 but was retrospectively disqualified for doping.
"This year I did a lot more 200 metres training, a lot of sacrifice, commitment and dedication," the 26-year-old Fraser-Pryce said.
Ivory Coast's Murielle Ahoure, who became the first African woman to finish on the podium in a sprint at the world championships when second in the 100m, got a second silver but only just.
She and Nigeria's Blessing Okagbare were both timed at 22.32 but Ahoure took it by sixth thousandths of a second, leaving Okagbare to add bronze to the silver she won in the long jump.
Felix, who had been hoping to become the first athlete to win nine world golds, pulled up with a hamstring injury halfway round the opening bend. She fell to the floor and was eventually carried from the track by her brother Wes.
Amid the ecstasy of victory, the agony was also clear to see as a distraught Felix was carried out of the stadium by her brother Wes at the same time a beaming Fraser-Pryce danced to Bob Marley's 'One Love' on her lap of honour.
"I'm extremely devastated. I was really hoping to go out here and put together a great race," Felix said.
"It is a serious injury."
Fraser-Pryce, who ran in shocking pink spikes matching her flowing hair extensions, won the 100 metres gold medal at last year's Olympics and took silver in the 200 behind Felix.